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Acid: A substance having a sour or sharp flavor. Most foods are somewhat acidic. Foods generally referred to as acidic include lemon juice (citric acid), vinegar, cream of tartar, orange juice, pineapple juice and wine. Degree of acidity is measured on the pH scale; acids have a pH of less than 7.


Acidify: To add acid (lemon juice or vinegar) to a culinary preparation to made a dish slightly acid, sour, or piquant.


Acidulated Water: The addition of lemon juice or vinegar to cold water in order to prevent discoloration of some fruits and vegetables. To every pint of water, add 1 teaspoon of lemon juice or vinegar.


Baba - (BAH-ba): Called babka in Poland and Babas Au Rhum in France. These are small cakes made from a yeast dough containing raisins or currants. They are baked in cylindrical molds and then soaked with a sugar syrup usually flavored with rum (originally they were soaked in a sweet fortified wine). After these cakes were soaked in the wine sauce for a day, the dried fruits would fall out of them. History - It is believed to be a version of a kugelhopf which was invented in Lemberg in the 1600s. It is said that the French thus called the cake a baba, meaning "falling over or dizzy." It is also said that the cake was named after one of the heroes of Stanishias Leczinski's favorite book, "Ali Baba." Babas are said to have been brought to France by Stanisias Leczinski of Poland, the deposed king of Poland and the father-in-law of King Louis XV of France. He was very fond of the Babba of his homeland and brought his baker to Paris to introduce them. In the 18th century, a French cook named Savarin made a special cake and served it with a rum sauce. He called it Baba Au Savarin. The dessert became very popular, but the people called it Baba Au Rhum and soon forgot about Savarin.


Bagel - (BAY-guhl): Bagel derives from the Yiddish word "beygl" which comes from the German word "beugel" meaning a "bracelet." Bagels are bread rolls in the shape of a doughnut or an old-fashioned curtain ring. The brown and glossey crust is obtained on the rolls by first boiling them in water and then baking them in an oven. History - According to legend, the world's first bagel was produced in 1683 as a tribute to Jan Sobieski, King of Poland. The king, a renowned horseman, had just saved the people of Austria from an onslaught by Turkish invaders. In gratitude, a local baker shaped yeast dough into the shape of stirrup to honor him and called it the Austrian word for stirrup, "beugel." The roll soon became a hit throughout Eastern Europe. Over time, its shape evolved into a circle with a hole in the center and its named was converted to its modern form, bagel. In the 1880s, hundreds of thousands of Eastern European Jews emigrated to America, bringing with them a love for bagels. New York City vendors used the bagel's hole-in-the-middle shape to their merchandising advantage by threading them onto dowels and selling them on street corners throughout the city. In 1927, Polish baker Harry Lender opened the first bagel plant outside New York City in New Haven, Conn. The bagel's popularity began to spread in the United States.


Beat: See mixing method.




Bind: See mixing method.


Blend: See mixing method.




Cream: See mixing method.


Crème Frangipane: is a rich pastry cream flavored with ground almonds and used to fill or top pastries and cakes. The name has a very unusual origin. In the 16th century an Italian nobleman, Marquis Muzio Frangipani, created a perfume for scenting gloves. It was popular in Paris, and pastry cooks flavored pastry cream with almonds and called it 'frangipane', presumably to take advantage of the scents popularity.